Monday, 12 April 2021


Manipur has a total surface area of (22,327) sq. km. forming 0.7% of the total land surface of the Indian Union. It is situated between the parallels (23o50'N) -(25o41'N) and the meridians (92o59'E) - (94o45'E). Administrative Map. It has a border of 854 km of which 352 is international border with Burma on the East. The remaining 502 km long border separates her from the neighboring states of Nagaland on the North, Assam on the West and Mizoram on the South and the South West. Physiographycally the land is divisible into a central valley and the surrounding mountains. Physiographic Map. The plain or the valley is approximately (2238 sq. km.) accounting to 10% of the total area. Out of this an area of 550 sq. km. is occupied by lakes, wetlands, barren uplands and hillocks. The valley is oval shape with a NNW-SSE orientation and has a gentle slope towards the South measuring 798 m above m.s.l. at the extreme North and 746 m above m.s.l. at the Southern end. The Imphal city stands at an altitude of 790 m above m.s.l.

Two river systems viz. the Barak-Bramhaputra System and the Chindwin-Irrawaddi System drained the entire State. The Barak River and itstributaries form the sub-system in the western hills and join the earlier system. Important tributaries under this sub-system are the Dzuko, the Leimatak, the Irang, the Makru and the Tuivai flowing in a NE-NW orientation.

The Imphal or Manipur River meanders through the Manipur valley in a NW-SE direction. Its important tributaries are the Kongba, the Iril, the Thoubal, the Heirok Sekmai, the Khuga and the Chakpi rivers. The Manipur River passes through a gorge flow out of the state to join the Chindiwin River in Myanmar.

The mountains are divided into the Western Hills comprising the Koubru-Laimaton, Makui-Longbi, Kala Naga and Vangai ranges, while the Eastern Hills comprise the Siroi Mapithel and Yamodoung ranges. The highest peak in the state is Mt.Essau or Tenipu(9824 ft/2994 m).

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