Wednesday, 07 December 2022

Human Resources

Human resources is the nucleus of other resources. In the triangular relationship among the economic resources, human resources and the environment, it occupies the core of the nexus by virtue of man's being the most potential consumer in the natural ecosystem. Both the economic resources and the altered environment are the bye-products of human civilization. A balance between mobilization of economic resources and generating a sound environment therefore can be struck only when the human resource is adequately developed through perspective education and systematic manpower planning.

Population

According to 2001 census, Manipur has a population of 23,88,634. The sex ratio was 978 females per 1000 males. The valley that is 12% of the total geographical area had 58.84% of the population while the hills (88%) were inhabited by 41.16%. This makes an impaired distribution of population between the hills and the plains having the population densities of 52 persons per sq.km. and 632 persons per sq. km. respectively even though the average density of 107 per sq.km. is much below the all India average. The tribes constitute 31.51% of the total population while the Muslims and the scheduled caste form 7.26% and 0.96% respectively. Religion wise, the Hindu constitute 57% Muslims 7.26% Christians 34.11 and other viz. Sikhs, Jains, Budhists etc. 1.63%. The average household size varies between 6.09 in the rural and 6.29 in the urban areas.

The district-wise population (Provisional Results - 2001 Census)

Sl.
No.

State/Districts

Total Population

Sex ratio (females per 1000 males)

Density

(per sq.km.)

Decadal growth in P.C.

(1991-2001)

Persons

Males

Females

1.

Manipur

2,388,634

1,207,338

1,181,296

978

107

30.02

2.

Senapati

3,79,214

196,646

1,82,568

928

116

81.96

3.

Tamenglong

1,11,493

57,994

53,499

922

25

29.23

4.

Churachandpur

2,28,707

114,740

113,967

993

50

29.81

5.

Bishnupur

2,05,907

102,772

103,135

1,004

415

13.90

6.

Thoubal

3,66,341

183,338

183,003

998

713

24.62

7.

Imphal West

4,39,780

218,947

220,585

1,007

847

15.42

8.

Imphal East

3,93,780

197,710

196,070

992

555

19.16

9.

Ukhrul

1,40,946

73,413

67,533

920

31

28.98

10.

Chandel

1,22,714

61,778

60,936

986

37

72.80

Education

The origin of the organized education in the state dates back to 1903 when Rev. W. Pettigrew, a British educationist and philanthropist became the first honorary inspector of schools under the Education Department of Assam. Prior to 1950, there was no education department in the state as such. In the year 1951-52, a new set up in the general administration of Manipur came into existence. The matter of educational activities was in the hands of the Territorial Council of Manipur till 1960. A full fledged education department came along with the attainment of state hood and since then considerable progress has been underway. Besides, numerous missionary schools, other private run schools have augmented the progress of education and literacy in the state in the recent years. The commencement of numerous technical colleges and the Manipur University has enhanced the higher education to a great extend.

Number of Recognised Educational Institutions

Sl.
No.

Year/State/
Districts

Pre-primary/
Primary/JB/
UJB Schools

Middle/
Jr.High/
Sr.Basic Schools

High/Higher Secondary Schools

School for Professional & Other Education

College for General Education

College for Professional & Other Education

Universities

All Institutions

1.

1997-98

2,548

611

576

3,188

51

37

2

7,008

2.

1998-99

2,572

631

582

3,188

50

40

2

7,065

3.

Senapati

377

90

51

255

3

5

*

781

4.

Tamenglong

216

43

22

302

1

1

*

585

5.

Churachandpur

266

78

78

432

3

1

*

858

6.

Chandel

205

33

18

243

2

*

*

501

7.

Imphal East & West

742

217

231

731

25

26

2

1,974

8.

Bishnupur

215

52

50

337

8

3

*

665

9.

Thoubal

327

72

92

475

7

3

*

976

10.

Ukhrul

224

46

40

413

1

1

*

725

* Nil

Source: Directorate of Education (S), Govt. of Manipur
Directorate of Education (U), Govt. of Manipur
Manipur University, Canchipur

Central Agricultural University, Iroisemba

 

Literates and Literacy rates by Districts of Manipur (Provisional Results - 2001 Census)

Sl.
No.

State/Districts

Number of literates @ Literacy rate%
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
1. Manipur 14,29,656 8,15,944 6,13,712 68.87 77.87 59.70
2. Senapati 1,71,100 99,583 71,517 50.47 56.39 44.04
3. Tamenglong 56,269 33,640 22,629 58.46 67.04 49.11
4. Churachandpur 1,48,829 84,537 64,292 74.67 84.98 64.40
5. Bishnupur 1,27,667 72,751 54,916 71.59 82.25 61.09
6. Thoubal 2,08,464 1,23,372 85,092 67.90 80.50 55.34
7. Imphal West 3,12,125 1,71,350 1,40,775 80.61 89.40 72.24
8. Imphal East 2,60,573 1,47,617 1,12,956 76.38 86.44 66.30
9. Ukhrul 83.284 47,625 35,659 68.96 75.40 61.91
10. Chandel 61,345 35,469 25,876 57.38 66.12 48.57

@ Literates exclude children in the age group 0-6 years who were by definition treated as illiterate in the Census of India, 2001.

% Literacy rate is the percentage of literate to population aged 7 years and above.

Source: Directorate of Census Operations, Manipur

Manpower Potential

Workers and Non-Workers in Rural and Urban areas of Manipur

Sl.
No.

Year/District

Main Workers

Marginal workers

Non-workers

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

1.

1981

4,53,210

1,20,129

5,73,339

27,250

13,219

40,469

5,65,033

2,42,112

8,07,145

10,45,493

3,75,460

14,20,953

2.

1991

5,55,727

1,52,556

7,08,283

46,343

20,278

66,621

7,29,434

3,32,811

10,62,245

13,31,504

5,05,645

18,37,149

3.

Senapati

1,04,681

*

1,04,681

3,439

*

3,439

1,00,286

*

1,00,286

2,08,406

*

2,08,406

4.

Tamenglong

39,210

*

39,210

494

*

495

46,574

*

46,574

86,278

*

86,278

5.

Churachandpur

65,323

9,576

74,899

2,408

344

2,752

74,787

23,746

98,533

1,42,518

33,666

1,76,184

6.

Chandel

30,998

3,303

34,301

2,421

601

3,022

27,922

5,769

33,691

61,341

9,673

71,014

7.

Imphal West

60,978

61,736

1,22,714

3,445

4,437

7,882

1,00,512

1,49,693

2,50,205

1,64,935

2,15,866

3,80,801

8.

Imphal East

88,088

18,649

1,06,737

10,968

1,051

12,019

1,55,588

56,116

2,11,704

2,54,644

75,816

3,30,46

9.

Bishnupur

45,969

23,145

69,114

6,623

4,455

11,078

65,011

35,570

1,00,581

1,17,603

63,170

1,80,773

10.

Thoubal

71,547

36,147

1,07,694

15,157

9,390

24,547

99,800

61,917

1,61,717

1,86,504

1,07,354

2,93,958

11.

Ukhrul

48,933

*

48,933

1,388

*

1,388

58,954

*

58,954

1,09,275

*

1,09,275

Source: Office of the Registrar General of India

 

Employment

Registration, vacancies notified and placements as on 31st March of the year

Sl.
No.

Year/District/Ext.

Employment Exchange including sub-exchange

Regis-tration

Vacancies notified

Place-
ments

Vacancies outstanding

Submission made

No. of Registrants on live register

Employers using Exchange

1.

1998

13

31,007

642

429

2,466

17,103

3,22,253

126

2.

1999

15

37,861

1,108

162

334

51,327

3,54,269

85

3.

2000

15

35,760

2,083

69

954

74,609

3,87,890

82

4.

Imphal East

2

10,748

6

3

*

51,327

3,87,890

*

5.

Imphal West

1

10,437

2,083

23

954

26,221

1,62,740

82

6.

Thoubal

1

4,720

*

22

*

14,182

57,697

*

7.

Bishnupur

1

2,499

*

13

*

6,428

38,793

*

8.

Churachandpur

1

3,027

*

4

*

4,152

35,309

*

9.

Chandel

2

828

*

*

*

1,080

13,942

*

10.

Ukhrul

1

947

*

3

*

1,068

15,514

*

11.

Senapati

3

1,019

*

*

*

1,383

23,145

*

12.

Tamenglong

1

1,195

*

*

*

1,185

10,415

*

13.

SPL. Emp. Exch. for P.H. Cell Imphal

1

116

15

1

*

195

1,602

*

14.

U.E.I & G.B. Canchipur

1

224

*

*

*

733

1,681

*

* Not Available

Source: Directorate of Employment and Training, Govt. of Manipur, Lamphel

Manpower planning
The foregoing features indicate a rich manpower resource in the state and a fairly large crisis of unemployment. A stringent manpower planning exercise is highly called for in the state before the crisis aggravates. At present, many of the basic features of manpower planning have been ushered in the state. But the desired effect is still remote since the conceptulisation, execution, co-ordination etc. on the part of the management authorities and the state's management of economic resource and development works are put to a chronic pattern of ad-hocism. There are 3-town employment exchanges, one exchange each for all the district headquarters, and a special exchange for handicapped persons in the state. One self Employment Promotion Cell, one University Employment Information and Guidance Bureau and one State Vocational Guidance Unit etc. have also been established in the state. A separate directorate for manpower planning and management has also been recently installed. Besides, there are Labour Organizations, Labour Departments, Labour Welfare Schemes, Legal Aid to Labours etc. in the state. For generating skilled workers and self-employment, six of its have been located in the state. But, the institute at Imphal is the lone efficient producer of trained personnel. Therefore, updating of the efficiency of all these different organs of manpower planning and their co-ordination need immediate attention.